RACIST SERIAL KILLER: Joseph Paul Franklin (born April 13, 1950) is an American serial killer who may have killed 20 people between 1977 and 1980. He has been convicted of several murders, and has confessed to the attempted assassinations of two prominent people: the 1978 shooting of magazine publisher Larry Flynt and Flynt's attorney and the 1980 shooting of Vernon Jordan. Franklin shot and paralyzed publisher Larry Flynt because “Hustler” magazine dedicated an issue to inter-racial sex. Franklin also shot and wounded black attorney Vernon Jordan (Bill Clinton confidant) and former president of the “Urban League” because Jordan was jogging with a Caucasian woman. Franklin has not been convicted in either of those cases. Because Franklin has changed his story about some cases, the full extent of his crimes are unknown.

He was born James Clayton Vaughn, in Mobile, Alabama to a poor family. In 1976 he changed his name to Joseph Paul Franklin. He selected Joseph Paul in honor of Paul Joseph Goebbels and Franklin for Benjamin Franklin.

Franklin is believed to have suffered an abusive childhood at the hands of both his violent parents. As early as high school he had become very interested in neo-Nazism and later held memberships in both the American Nazi Party and the Ku Klux Klan. He also has one daughter from a 1968 marriage.

Franklin was a drifter, roaming up and down the East Coast, always looking for chances to "cleanse the world" of people he considered inferior, especially blacks and Jews. He sustained himself by robbing banks and often sold or traded the guns he used to kill. Despite being partially blind in his left eye and completely blind in his right eye, Franklin was a proficient marksman, and killed most of his victims from over 100 feet away. He did not touch or try to contact the majority of victims, instead assassinating them from a distance; thereby falling into the category of a mission oriented serial killer. He was a highly organized killer, who would plan several escape routes and anti-forensic techniques in advance. Despite his rare and inflammatory motives, Franklin's complete lack of murder ritual has excluded him from pop culture reference, unlike less prolific serial killers such as Ted Bundy.

Criminal career

Franklin's level of violence continuously escalated; before he committed his first known murder, he fire-bombed a synagogue and threw mace at a racially-mixed couple. Starting in 1977, he went on a continual murder spree, supporting himself by robbing banks. He admitted his racist ideology; God, he said, wanted him to start a race war.

Franklin killed at random, and may have begun in Madison, Wisconsin. His target of choice were mixed-race couples, which he called "MRCs." In interviews, he explained that he planned the murders and his exit in advance, often changing his hair style and colour, as well as changing clothes and vehicles often. He would listen to a police scanner during his escapes.

On one occasion, he threatened to kill President Jimmy Carter for his pro-civil rights views. He'd also intended to shoot Jesse Jackson, but Jackson's security detail made this impossible; he changed his target to Vernon Jordan in lieu of Jackson. An escape artist, he managed to elude law enforcement for years. He was eventually caught, however, when a nurse in Florida taking the blood he was selling recognised a bald eagle tattoo on his arm.

Arrested in 1980, Franklin provided detailed confessions. He has been tried in several states and, in Missouri in 1997, he was sentenced to death.

Franklin has been linked by either indictment or confession to 20 murders, 6 aggravated assaults, 16 bank robberies and 2 bombings. He has confessed to 8 murders, and has received several life sentences or capital punishment for others. He made several confessions in the late 1990's on the condition that he confessed to "an attractive white female investigator."

* July 29, 1977; Beth Shalom synagogue in Chattanooga is firebombed.

* August 7, 1977; Dressed in cowboy regalia, Franklin shot and killed a black man and a white woman, Alphonse Manning and Toni Schwenn, driving away from a bank robbery in Madison, Wisconsin. He had been wanting to drive faster, but was frustrated with the speed of Manning's driving. Manning stopped his car and got out, Franklin picked up a stolen handgun and shot him, then walking over to his car and shot his friend. In 1985, he received two life sentences for these murders.

* October 8, 1977; He hid in long grass behind a telegraph pole at a synagogue parking lot in Richmond Heights, Missouri, using a Remington 700 hunting rifle to kill one man, Gerald Gordon, and injure two others. He had earlier in the day bought some ten inch nails, a bicycle and a guitar case. He scratched the serial number from his gun, cleaned off his fingerprints and placed it in the guitar case. He hammered the nails into the telegraph pole to serve as a gun rest and used the bike for a quick escape. He then took the rifle out of the case and fired five shots. After killing Gordon and wounding Steven Goldman and William Ash, he cycled to his car. He was convicted of murder, and was sentenced to death by lethal injection in the Potosi Correctional Center in Potosi, Missouri.

* Franklin claims that, on March 6, 1978, he used a .44 caliber rifle to ambush pornographer Larry Flynt and his lawyer Gene Reeves in Lawrenceville, Georgia. In his confession, Franklin said this was in retaliation for an edition of Hustler displaying interracial sex. Flynt was paralyzed from the waist down. Flynt believes Franklin's confession, but there have been no charges in the case. The confession came years after the shooting, and it is not clear that there is any evidence besides Franklin's word.

* July 29, 1978; Franklin hid in the long grass around a Pizza Hut in Chattanooga, jumping out to kill Bryant Tatum with a 12 gauge shotgun. Tatum, a black man, was shot once, as was his white girlfriend Nancy Hilton (who survived.) Franklin confessed and pleaded guilty, being given a life sentence, as well as a sentence for an unrelated armed robbery in 1977.

* July 12, 1979; Taco Bell manager Harold McIver (27), a black man, was shot through a window from 150 yards in Doraville, Georgia, killing him. Franklin confessed but was not tried or sentenced for this crime. Franklin asserted that McIver was in close contact with white women, and the murder prevented him from having sex with any of them.

* August 18, 1979; He killed a black man seated in a Burger King with a rifle in Falls Church, Virginia. Later, this would be the scene of another sniper attack by the Beltway sniper. Franklin confessed to the murder on videotape.

* October 21, 1979; Franklin used a sniper rifle to kill a mixed race couple in Oklahoma City. He has not yet been tried for this murder. He fired five shots from 100 yards away, hitting Jesse Taylor, who was black, three times and Marian Bresette, who was white, once.

* December 5, 1979; Franklin killed 15-year-old prostitute Mercedes Lynn Masters, with whom he had previously lived in Dekalb County, Georgia, with a shotgun. Her fatal mistake was telling Franklin that she had black customers. DeKalb County was also the scene of four of the Atlanta child murders, which were initially thought to be racially motivated.

* January 8 or January 11, 1980; Franklin murdered a 19-year-old black man in a long-distance rifle attack in Indianapolis. The young man was standing with his father outside a fried chicken restaurant. Franklin awaits trial for aggravated murder.

* January 16 or January 17, 1980; He sniped a black man with the same rifle from 150 yards in Indianapolis. He awaits trial for aggravated murder.

* May 2, 1980; He shot hitchhiker Rebecca Bergstrom with a handgun in Monroe County, Wisconsin. He confessed to this murder in 1984.

* May 29, 1980; He says he shot Bill Clinton associate Vernon Jordan after seeing him with a white woman in Fort Wayne, Indiana. He was initially acquitted, but later confessed.

* June 8, 1980; Franklin has confessed to killing cousins Darrel Lane (14) and Donte Evans Brown (13) in Bond Hill, Cincinnati. He was waiting on an overpass for hours to shoot a racially mixed couple, but grew impatient and shot the boys instead. He received two life sentences for these murders. During the trial, he taunted the Judge and claimed that the sheriff and his deputies were homosexuals [1].

* June 15, 1980; He shot and killed an interracial couple, Arthur Smothers (22) and Kathleen Mikula (16), from a woodland area in Johnstown, Pennsylvania. Franklin has confessed, although Pennsylvania has not extradited him.

* June 25, 1980; He used a .44 Ruger pistol to kill two hitchhikers — Nancy Santomero (19) and Vicki Durian (26) — in Pocahontas County, West Virginia. He confessed to the crime after it was revealed that another man, Jacob Beard of Florida, was imprisoned in 1993 on these charges. He picked up the white girls, but decided to kill them after one of them admitted having a black boyfriend. He later said, "They told me they were into race-mixing, I just decided to waste 'em."

* August 20, 1980; He killed two black men from 40 yards with a Marlin Firearms lever action rifle as they jogged with white women in Salt Lake City. Franklin received two life sentences for this crime. The victims, Ted Fields and David Martin, died at the scene. [2]

* September, 1980; He escaped from police custody, but was recaptured in Florida.
Conviction and imprisonment

A recalcitrant and unrepentant prisoner, Franklin claimed after trial (for the murder of Gerald Gordon) that his only regret was that killing Jews was not legal. He made an escape attempt during a judgment. He made a reference to his escape attempts during the trial, thanking the jury for a fair trial and commending them on their verdict, claiming that if he had not been given the death penalty, he would probably escape again.


William Luther Pierce's second book, Hunter, contains a dedication to Franklin.


The term neo-Nazi refers to any post-World War II social or political movement seeking to revive Nazism, or some variant that echoes core aspects of National Socialism. Members of neo-Nazi groups (excluding the NSM) prefer to be called "white nationalists, white separatists, or, white racialists," and object to the term neo-Nazi. The vast majority of neo-Nazis have beliefs that differ from actual Nazism, but they still advocate white supremacy.

During the 1960-70s, all racist non-Klan groups were labeled generically as neo-Nazis, and so were the racist skinhead groups that emerged during the 1980s. The Ku Klux Klan started as a domestic "homegrown" hate movement, and was not directly influenced by Nazi ideology.

There are a number of small neo-Nazi groups in the United States today. The earliest example of this ideological tendency can be traced back to the 1930s and the formation of the German-American Bund. The German-American Bund and similar groups achieved limited popularity. The zenith of the Bund's history occurred on President's Day, February 19, 1939 at Madison Square Garden in New York City. Some 20,000 people attended and heard Fritz Kuhn criticize President Franklin D. Roosevelt by repeatedly referring to him as “Frank D. Rosenfeld”, calling his New Deal the "Jew Deal." The Bund's popularity rapidly faded with the onset of World War II. The groups either disbanded or were dismantled by force of law (such as the 1942 sedition trial) during the war period. After the war, new organizations formed, with varying degrees of support for Nazi principles.

George Lincoln Rockwell

In 1959, the first explicitly postwar American neo-Nazi group was founded by George Lincoln Rockwell. The American Nazi Party achieved high-profile coverage in the press through their public demonstrations.

American Nazi Party

Organizations which report upon American neo-Nazi activities include the Anti-Defamation League and Southern Poverty Law Center. While a small minority of American neo-Nazis draw public attention, most operate underground, so they can recruit, organize and raise funds without interference or harassment. American neo-Nazi groups often operate websites, occasionally stage public demonstrations, and maintain ties to groups in Europe and elsewhere.

NSM Commander Jeff Schoep

The First Amendment to the United States Constitution guarantees freedom of speech, which allows political organizations great latitude in expressing Nazi, racist, and anti-Semitic views. A First Amendment landmark was the "Skokie Affair", in which neo-Nazis threatened to march in a predominantly Jewish suburb of Chicago. The march never took place in Skokie, but the court ruling allowed the neo-Nazis to stage a series of demonstrations in the Chicago area.

Members of The Order were convicted of crimes such as murder, racketeering, conspiracy, violating civil rights and sedition. Matthew F. Hale of the Creativity Movement was imprisoned for soliciting the murder of a federal judge. Aryan Nations lost a $6.2 million dollar lawsuit after Aryan Nations members opened fire on a passing vehicle. Aryan Nations has since lost its headquarters and paramilitary training grounds, and has split into three separate organizations. Other neo-Nazi groups in the US, include the National Alliance, White Aryan Resistance (WAR), American Front, and the National Socialist Movement (NSM). The NSM was founded in 1974 by Robert Brannen, former member of the American Nazi Party before its decline. The group claims to be the largest and most active neo-Nazi organization in the United States.

Combat 18
(skull insignia based on the Nazi Totenkopf)

Combat 18 (C18) is a neo-Nazi group based in the UK. C18 is an international group with chapters in Europe, South America, Australia, Canada, and the US. A former C18 leader, Del O'Connor, moved to the US and started TCB Hate Crew, a small skinhead group in Texas and parts of the Midwest (now defunct). Del O'Conner and his C18 splinter group, White Wolves, were initially believed to have been involved in masterminding the bombing of a gay nightclub and several other locations in London. He is now a representative for the group Volksfront.

See also: Neo-Nazi Skinheads, Ku Klux Klan

KKK: Ku Klux Klan

The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) is a racist, anti-Semitic movement with a commitment to extreme violence to achieve its goals of racial segregation and white supremacy. Of all the types of right-wing hate groups that exist in the United States, the Klan remains the one with the greatest number of national and local organizations around the country.

MIOAK (Mystic Insignia Of A Klansman)
aka: the blood drop cross

More than 40 different Klan groups exist, many having multiple chapters, or "klaverns," including a few that boast a presence in a large number of states. There are over a hundred different Klan chapters around the country, with a combined strength of members and associates that may total around 5,000.

After a period of relative quiet, Ku Klux Klan activity has spiked noticeably upwards in 2006, as Klan groups have attempted to exploit fears in America over gay marriage, perceived "assaults" on Christianity, crime and especially immigration.

* Founder: Confederate Civil War veterans Captain John C. Lester, Major James R. Crowe, John D. Kennedy, Calvin Jones, Richard R. Reed, Frank O. McCord
* Founded: 1866
* Headquarters: Each different Klan group has its own headquarters.
* Background: The Klan has fragmented into more than 40 separate factions of varying sizes. There is no "one" Ku Klux Klan.
* Estimated size: There are over a hundred different chapters in the various Klan organizations, with varying memberships. Overall, there may be as many as 5,000 members and associates of the Ku Klux Klan. The Klan is strongest in the South and in the Midwest.
* Criminal Activity: The Klan has a relatively high association with criminal activity, ranging from hate crimes to acts of domestic terrorism.
* Media: Mass mailings, leafleting and the Internet
* Strategy: Public rallies and protests, "adopt a highway" programs and other attention getting stunts, Internet
* Ideology: White supremacist ideology not far from that of neo-Nazis, although it tends to be more Christian-oriented and to stress American patriotism.
* Affiliations: National Socialist Movement, Aryan Nations, Christian Identity groups
* Financial support: Little. Most funding comes from membership dues and sales of Klan paraphernalia.

The Ku Klux Klan first emerged following the Civil War as America's first true terrorist group. Since its inception, the Ku Klux Klan has seen several cycles of growth and collapse, and in some of these cycles the Klan has been more extreme than in others. In all of its incarnations, however, the Klan has maintained its dual heritage of hate and violence.

KKK Tattoo

At first, the Ku Klux Klan focused its anger and violence on African-Americans, and white Americans who stood up for them, and against the federal government which supported their rights. Subsequent incarnations of the Klan, which typically emerged in times of rapid social change, added more categories to its enemies list, including Jews, Catholics (less so after the 1970s), homosexuals, and different groups of immigrants.

In most of these cases, these perceived enemies were minority groups that came into direct economic competition with the lower- and working-class whites that formed the core constituency of the Klan in most of its incarnations.

The Ku Klux Klan was overshadowed in the late 1990s and early 2000s by growing neo-Nazi activity; however, by 2005 neo-Nazi groups had fallen on hard times, with many groups collapsing or fragmenting. This collapse has helped create a rise of racist skinhead activity, but has also provided new opportunities for Klan groups.


The Klan produced a figurine during the 1920s called KIGY the friendly Klansman (KIGY = Klansman I Greet You). Klan members claim to have sold over a million dolls. In the 1970s, KIGY was reproduced as an action figure, but only a limited number were sold.

During the 2000s, many communities in the United States began to experience a significant influx of immigrants, especially Hispanics. A single-issue movement opposing immigration has helped create fear and anxiety about immigration in the minds of many Americans.

Many Ku Klux Klan groups have attempted to take advantage of that fear and uncertainty, using anti-immigration sentiments for recruitment and propaganda purposes, and to attract publicity.

See also: Neo-Nazis

Almighty Gaylords

Almighty Gaylords

Chicago's Almighty Gaylords
- Grand Avenue Young Lords, is one of Chicago's oldest white street gangs, that started in the early 1950s. The gang was originally a neighborhood club. Like other clubs of that era, Gaylords had their own clubhouse and baseball team. The Gaylords clubhouse was on the corner of Ohio and Noble Street. The gang would eventually leave that area as the neighborhood's population became less white and more Hispanic.

Gaylord wizard tattoo

Throughout the 1960-70s, Gaylords, like many other white neighborhood gangs, took a pro-white stance - not white supremacy - but a white pride attitude, that said “We are white, and we're proud of our heritage!” The Hispanic gangs used "Spanish" and "Latin" in their names, so this was done to separate themselves from the gangs they were fighting against at that time.

Gaylord fire cross

At one point during the 1970s, the gang had over a thousand active members. Gaylords held sets (or sections) in both the North Side and the South Side of Chicago. Their South Side sections included Back of the Yards (around 55th and Ashland, Sherman Park), Marquette Park, Pilsen (18th and Western), and Bridgeport (Throop Street). Their North Side presence included Humboldt Park (Maffat and Campbell), Logan Square (Palmer and California, Lawndale and Altgeld), Uptown (Sunnyside and Magnolia, Lawrence and Broadway), Kilbourn Park, and Ravenswood (Seeley and Ainslie).

G/L handsign

The Gaylords experienced continual growth throughout the early 1980s, and held their neighborhoods while most white families moved to the suburbs (white flight). The gentrification of their neighborhoods diminished the gang's ability to recruit new members. In 1984, Gaylords joined the "People Nation" gang alliance, that's predominantly black and Hispanic.


* initials "GL"
* numbers "7-12"
* latin cross w/two dashes
* wizard/grim reaper
* five-point star
* cane (
seldom used)

Colors: black and light blue, or black and gray

predominantly white

Chicago area,

Jousters, Freaks, People Nation (Latin Kings, Vice Lords, etc)

Rivals: Folk Nation (Simon City Royals, Gangster Disciples, Latin Disciples, etc)

Criminal activities: drug possession, armed-robbery, weapons violation, assault, murder

Racist Skinhead Oi! Music

Hate Rock music is now a major recruitment tool and source of funding for hate groups. Many hate group members, especially neo-Nazi skinheads, have been drawn to white supremacy by listening to hate rock on the Internet, on CDs, and at concerts, often promoted and coordinated online, where crowds violently slamdance to the music of bands such as Angry Aryans, Blue Eyed Devils, and H8Machine.


* Racist Oi!/RAC: The oldest genre of hate music is derived from Oi!, an offshoot of punk music that originated in the 1970s and became heavily associated with the emerging skinhead subculture. In the wake of Skrewdriver, some racist Oi! bands emerged, sometimes calling their music RAC (Rock Against Communism).

* Hatecore: Hatecore is essentially a racist version of hardcore punk, a musical subgenre that emerged in the U.S. in the early 1980s. Some hardcore punk musicians later merged it with heavy metal music to create thrash or speed metal; there are racist versions of this as well.


Accion Radical
Comando Suicida
Razon y Fuerza


Abyssic Hate
Battle Hymn
Blood Oath
Death's Head
Frontline Fighters
Honour Guard
Open Season
Raven's Wing
Southern Cross
Spear of Longinus
White Lightning
White Noise



Donar's Krieg

Brigada NS
Defesa Armada
Goat Penis
Grupo Separatista Branco
Locomotiva 88
Resistencia 88

Excessive Force
Involved Patriot
Odin's Law
Trouble Makers
Vinland Warriors
White Riot

Odal Sieg
Rockan Oi


Czech Republic
Agrese 95
Biely Odpor
Conflict 88
Hlas Krve
Prinz Eugen
Valasska Liga
Zast 88

Chamber 88
Strike Force

Battle Zone
Brutal Attack
Bulldog Breed
Chingford Attack
Croyden Criminals
Dragon Lance
English Rose
Eurocentrifugal Force
Eye of Odin
Grade One
Ian Stuart
Ken McLellan
Kindred Spirit
Legion of St. George
No Fear
No Remorse
Paul Burnley
Public Enemy
Razors Edge
Rune Shield
Sudden Impact
The Die-Hards
The Final Sound
The Klansmen
White Diamond
White Law

Preserve White Aryans

Brutal Skins
End Up Dead
Hate Crime
Pig Killer
Wiking Division

9eme Panzer Symphony
Blessed in Sin
Brutal Combat
Bunker 84
Chauves Pourris
Dernier Rampart
Evil Skins
Fraction Hexagone
Kontingent 88
Legion 88
Legion A
Osculum Infame
Patriotic Youth
Ultime Assault
Veme Colonne


14 Nothelfer
Arisches Blut
Aryan Blood
Aryan Brotherhood
Barad Dur
Body Checks
Boots Brothers
Brutale Haie
Celtic Moon
Commando Pernod
Deutch Stolz Treue
Die Harte
Die Moite
Die Separatism
Division Wiking
Doitsche Patrioten
Frank Rennicke
Hate Society
Holsteiner Jungs
Kraft Durch Froide
Legion Condor
Legion of Thor
Legion Ost
Macht Und Ehre
Might of Rage
Noie Werte
Oi Dramz
Ostfront AVK
Schwarzer Orden
Schwarzes Korps
Soldiers of Freedom
Stuka Attack
The Betrayed
Thor's Hammer
Todesschwadron D.F.E.
Unbending Bootboys
Voll die Guten
War 88
Weisse Wolf
Weisser Arischer Widerstand
White Aryan Rebels
Zillertaler Tuerkenjaeger

Der Sturmer
Iron Youth
Legion of Doom

Egeszseges Fejbor
Junkers 88
Magozott Cseresznye
Nemzeti Front
Pannon Skins
Titkolt Ellenallas

Celtic Dawn (Ireland)

A.D.L. 122
Ars Occulta
Block 11
Corona Ferrea
Front Towards Enemy
Fronte 82
Gesta Bellica
Injustice Side
Londinium SPQR
Mors Summa
New City Rocks
Ondo D'Urto
Peggior Amico
Plastic Surgery
SS 20
Verde Bianco Rosso

Brigade M

Norske Legion
Rinnan Band
Sonner av Norge
Vidkuns Venner

Defensor 14
Falanga 88
Gontyna Kry
Konkwista 88
Lord Wind
Nowy Lad
Odrodzenie 88
Sztorm 68
White Fist
Zyklon B

Guarda de Ferro

Banda Moskvy
Instruktsiya Po Vyzhivaniyu
Korroziya Metalla
Krasnye Zvezdy
Kulturnaya Revolutsiya
Nocturnal Mortum
Russian Ghetto
Terror National Front

British Standard

Battle Flag
Drzavni Udar
Kristalna Noc
Radikalne Patriote
Razor 88
Real Aggression
Revolt BGD
Sorab 18
The Terrorist
Trijumf Volje

Dr. Martens Skinheads
Juden Mord
Kratky Proces
Slovenska Liga

14 Palabras
7 Muelles
Batallon de Castigo
Centuria Hispanica
Division 250
Estandarte 88
Estirpe Imperial
Gabinete Caligari
Hermanos Blancos
Legion Negra
Los Illegales
Ofensiva 88
Seccion De Asalto
Tormenta Blanca
Torquemada 1488
Zetme 88

Blod Und Ara
Brigad Wotan
Division S
Heroes in the Snow
Hets Mot Folkgrupp
Jocke Karlsson
Matti S.
Midgards Soner
Odins Anglar
Pluton Svea
Pro Patria
Somalia Kickers
SS Totenkopf
Steelcapped Strength
Symphony of Sorrow
Vit Aggression
Volund Smed
White Warriors


Aryan Terrorism
Hate Forest
Sokyra Peruna

Escuadron 88

Aggravated Assault
Aggressive Force
Angry Aryans
Angry White Youth
Arresting Officers
Aryan Tormentor
Battle Axe
Before God
Bloodstained Boots
Blue Eyed Devils
Bound for Glory
Bully Boys
Carl Klang
Chaos 88
Code 13
Code of Violence
Crew X
Das Reich
Day of the Sword
Definite Hate
Dirty White Punks
Dread Moon
Eric Owens
Ethnic Cleansing
Extreme Hatred
Final Solution
Final War
Gestapo SS
Grinded Nig
H8Machine (formerly known as Dying Breed)
Note: A mainstream Christian rock group also uses this name.
Infernal Hatred
Intimidation One
Johnny Rebel
Kick to Kill
Kill or Be Killed
Max Resist
Midtown Bootboys
Neo Hate
New Glory
New Minority
No Alibi
Nordic Thunder
Order From Chaos
Patriotic Front
People Haters
Platoon 14
Plunder & Pillage
Pure Rampage
Red, White & Blue
Riot Wing
Shortfuse 76
Storm Section
Straightlaced Nightmare
The Voice
Vaginal Jesus
Vagrant the Noachian
Warfare 88
White American Youth
White Wash
White Wolf

Celtic Warrior
No Quarter
Violent Storm

Northsider Prison Gang


The Northsider prison gang was formed in the late 1970's at Menard prison, that's located in Southern Illinois. The founding members were from Chicago. The prison administration called them "northsiders" because they came from the northern part of the state. Gang members adopted the name and began calling themselves Northsiders. The gang only exist within the prison system. Members use nazi symbols and claim white supremacy.

In the United States Court of Appeals For the Seventh Circuit
No. 95-2901



Appeal from the United States District Court for the Southern District of Illinois, East St. Louis Division. No. 90 CV 3515--William L. Beatty, Judge.

ARGUED APRIL 23, 1996--DECIDED JULY 18, 1996

Before FLAUM, MANION and EVANS, Circuit Judges.

FLAUM, Circuit Judge. While Edward Pavlick was an inmate at the Menard Correctional Center, he arranged a meeting between a prison guard, Lieutenant Spiller, and another inmate, Daniel Schoolcraft. During this meeting (at which Pavlick was not present), Schoolcraft confessed to Spiller that he had been ordered to "hit" a prison administrator, Superintendent Larry Hopkins. The gang that ordered the hit struck back: four days later, Pavlick was attacked in his sleep by a group of inmates and stabbed 21 times. This case concerns whether Jimmy Mifflin, a prison guard who, according to an eyewitness account, opened Pavlick's cell door and allowed the attackers to enter, may be held liable for Pavlick's injuries.


In 1989, Pavlick was serving a seven year sentence at Menard for sexual assault (he was released from prison in 1991). By all accounts, Pavlick was a well behaved prisoner, and he obtained a maintenance job at the prison (repairing windows) for which he was allowed to work with power tools. He also had an uncommonly good rapport both with other inmates and with prison officials.

Menard is a maximum security institution, and many of the inmates belong to gangs. Pavlick and Schoolcraft were members of a gang known as the Northsiders. On the night of July 26, 1989, Schoolcraft approached Pavlick and asked him to "get an officer." According to Pavlick, Schoolcraft appeared scared. Pavlick went to Spiller, who was on duty that night, and asked him to go to Schoolcraft's cell. Spiller obliged.

During their conversation (at which Pavlick was not present), Schoolcraft confessed to Spiller that the Northsiders had ordered him to "hit" Superintendent Hopkins. /1 Spiller then removed Schoolcraft from his cell and placed him in protective custody. Pavlick, however, was left in the general population. The next morning, July 27, the prison was placed in lockdown status.

That morning, several officers came to talk to Pavlick in his cell. Pavlick testified that one of the officers, Captain Campanella, "thanked me for what I did." Pavlick responded by asking Campanella what he was talking about. This conversation took place in front of Pavlick's cellmate, Smith, who was also a Northsider.

Following Schoolcraft's confession, Hopkins stayed away from the cellhouse for over a week. Although it does not appear that the reason for his absence was ever officially announced, Hopkins stated that there were rumors circulating around the prison concerning the threat to his safety. The lockdown ended on July 28.

On the morning of Sunday, July 30, Pavlick returned to his cell after eating breakfast. Pavlick's cell was open because prisoners with details (prison jobs) are allowed out of their cells every day. Pavlick worked only Monday through Friday, but he was still allowed out of his cell on weekends. After breakfast, Pavlick decided that he wanted to go to sleep, so he asked his cellmate to leave. Smith left, and then Pavlick closed the door to his cell and went to sleep. Pavlick testified that he locked his door before going to sleep (apparently, prisoners have the ability to lock their own doors, but they cannot reopen the doors themselves), and he stated further that "[a]ny time I go to sleep, I always lock my door."

Pavlick awoke to find himself being attacked by several inmates. He described the assault as follows:

I woke up being attacked. . . . I was hit in the head first, and I started screaming, then I was getting stabbed in the back. There was a guy holding my legs down and was stabbing me, . . . stabbing me with his right arm, holding my legs down with his left, and his body was on my legs.

Pavlick started screaming, but no one came to help. He managed to free himself from his attackers, who then ran away. Pavlick walked to the guard station and asked Mifflin, the officer on duty at the time, whether he could go to the hospital. He was taken to the hospital and treated for "multiple stab wounds and lacerations." Pavlick testified that he received 21 stab wounds. The injuries left several scars: one on his finger, two through his eye, four on his right shoulder, two on his left shoulder, five on his back, four on the back of his neck, and nine on his head. In addition, Pavlick suffered an injury to his right eye that causes it to flutter. Two of the attackers, both of whom were members of the Northsiders, were eventually apprehended.

One inmate, Eddie Skaggs, witnessed the assault. After breakfast on July 30, Skaggs observed two inmates speaking with Officer Mifflin. Skaggs then, saw Mifflin go to Pavlick's cell, insert a key into the cell door, and open the door slightly. Mifflin left, and then the inmates "rushed into the cell" and started attacking Pavlick with 6-7 inch shanks (homemade knives). Skaggs testified that Pavlick, who was yelling and screaming, managed to escape, and then the attackers ran away.

Another inmate, Terry Kicinski, also viewed some of the events. At around 9:00 a.m. on July 30, Kicinski saw a few Northsiders standing in front of Pavlick's cell. In addition, Kicinski saw a correctional officer, whom he could not identify, open the door to Pavlick's cell. Kicinski then left the area and did not see anyone enter the cell.

Pavlick brought suit against Mifflin under 42 U.S.C. sec. 1983, claiming that Mifflin violated his Eighth Amendment rights by opening the door to his cell and allowing the attackers to enter. /2 A jury trial was held, during which Mifflin testified that he did not open the door to Pavlick's cell. The jury found in favor of Pavlick and awarded him $5,000 in compensatory damages and $5,000 in punitive damages. Mifflin appeals, arguing that Pavlick failed to present sufficient evidence of an Eighth Amendment violation. We affirm.


Because Mifflin is asking us to overturn a jury verdict, he faces a difficult burden: we will uphold the verdict so long as " 'the evidence presented, combined with all reasonable inferences that may be drawn from it, is sufficient to support the verdict when viewed in the light most favorable to the [winning] party.' " Gagan v. American Cablevision, Inc., 77 F.3d 951, 960 (7th Cir. 1996) (quoting Molnar v. United Technologies Otis Elevator, 37 F.3d 335, 337 (7th Cir. 1994)). To prevail on his Eighth Amendment claim, Pavlick must prove that Mifflin acted with deliberate indifference to his safety. Farmer v. Brennan, 114 S. Ct. 1970, 1979 (1994). A prison official acts with deliberate indifference if he "knows of and disregards an excessive risk to inmate health or safety; the official must both be aware of facts from which the inference could be drawn that a substantial risk of serious harm exists, and he must also draw the inference." Id. The prison official need not believe or intend that the inmate will actually be harmed; rather, he is liable if he consciously ignores a substantial risk to an inmate's safety. Id. at 1981; Haley v. Gross, No. 95-1130, slip op. at 21-22 (7th Cir. May 29, 1996). The Supreme Court has equated deliberate indifference to "subjective recklessness as used in the criminal law." Farmer, 114 S. Ct. at 1980. /3

Pavlick's argument for deliberate indifference is simple: immediately prior to the attack, Mifflin was seen conversing with several Northsiders. Mifflin then unlocked the door to Pavlick's cell and left, allowing the attackers to enter. These facts, Pavlick contends, are enough to allow the jury to infer that Mifflin knew what was going to happen. Or, at the very least, Mifflin knew that opening a sleeping inmate's cell door creates a serious risk to that inmate's safety. (Both Hopkins and Mifflin testified that it is not standard practice to open an inmate's door while he is sleeping at the unauthorized request of a group of other inmates).

Mifflin contends that although the evidence might support a conclusion that he was negligent, it is not sufficient to prove deliberate indifference. He bases his argument on the following gaps in the trial testimony: (1) none of the witnesses heard the conversation between him and the other inmates before he opened Pavlick's cell, so there was no evidence concerning why he opened the cell; (2) Mifflin was not on duty when Schoolcraft reported the planned hit to Spiller, so there was no evidence that Mifflin even knew of the threat to Hopkins' life; and (3) even if Mifflin had heard the rumors concerning the planned hit on Hopkins, there was no evidence that he knew that Pavlick helped Schoolcraft contact prison officials, so there was no evidence that Mifflin knew that Pavlick was in any potential danger.

As an initial matter, although this case was litigated as one of deliberate indifference, Pavlick's allegations appear to go beyond simple "indifference" to his safety. Viewing the evidence in the light most favorable to the verdict (as we must), a reasonable jury could have inferred that, by opening Pavlick's cell door and allowing the attackers to enter, Mifflin actually participated in the assault. We have upheld convictions for aiding and abetting on similar facts. See United States v. Fountain, 768 F.2d 790, 798-99 (7th Cir. 1985) (upholding conviction of prisoner for aiding and abetting the murder of a prison guard where the defendant gave a knife - the murder weapon - to the inmate who killed the guard immediately prior to the incident), cert. denied, 475 U.S. 1124 (1986); United States v. Ortega, 44 F.3d 505, 508 (7th Cir. 1995) ("One who, knowing the criminal nature of another's act, deliberately renders what he knows to be active aid in the carrying out of the act is . . . an aider or abettor even if there is no evidence that he wants the act to succeed."). In contrast, "deliberate indifference," at least as a matter of grammar, seems more appropriate to describe inaction: for example, a guard's failure to protect an inmate, see, e.g., Haley, supra, a prison official's failure to provide medical treatment to an inmate, see, e.g., Murphy v. Walker, 51 F.3d 714, 719 (7th Cir. 1995) (per curiam), or a municipality's failure to train its police force. See, e.g., City of Canton v. Harris, 489 U.S. 378, 388 (1989); Harris v. City of Marion, 79 F.3d 56, 59 (7th Cir. 1996). In previous cases, however, we have applied the deliberate indifference standard even to allegations of unconstitutional action (e.g., a doctor's errors in providing medical care). See, e.g., Williams v. O'Leary, 55 F.3d 320 (7th Cir.), cert. denied, 116 S. Ct. 527 (1995). And the Supreme Court has stated that deliberate indifference is similar to criminal recklessness, see Farmer, 114 S. Ct. at 1980, which may be used to describe both action and inaction. Thus, the "deliberate indifference" standard applies to this case, even though Mifflin's actions (rather than inactions) are at issue.

We believe that the evidence is sufficient to support the jury's verdict that Mifflin acted with deliberate indiffer- ence. As stated previously, a reasonable jury could infer from the evidence that Mifflin actively aided the assault against Pavlick. And even if he was not an aider and abettor, the jury could rationally infer that he knew he was exposing Pavlick to a substantial risk of serious harm. Contrary to Mifflin's assertion, the fact that Pavlick failed to produce a "smoking gun" (i.e., direct evidence of exactly what Mifflin knew) is not decisive in this case. Direct evidence of knowledge is difficult, and sometimes impossible to obtain; therefore the Supreme Court has held that deliberate indifference need not be proven by direct evidence. "Whether a prison official had the requisite knowledge of a substantial risk is a question of fact subject to demonstration in the usual ways, including inference from circumstantial evidence." Farmer, 114 S. Ct. at 1981; see also Haley, slip op. at 20-21; Grinder v. Gammon, 73 F.3d 793, 795-96 (8th Cir. 1996). In Farmer, the Supreme Court cautioned against "confusing a mental state [deliberate indifference] with the proof of its existence." Farmer, 114 S. Ct. at 1981 (citing Jerome Hall, General Principles of Criminal Law, 2d ed. 118 (Bobbs-Merrill 1960)). /4 Mifflin's argument appears to fall prey to such confusion: the fact that Pavlick's proof is circumstantial does not mean that it is insufficient for a rational jury to find deliberate indifference. /5

In essence, Pavlick's claim rests on two pieces of evidence. First, Mifflin was seen talking to a group of Northsiders immediately prior to the attack. Second, he was observed unlocking Pavlick's cell (an unusual action in itself) and promptly leaving the scene, allowing the attackers to enter and carry out the assault. Although a reasonable factfinder need not determine that Mifflin knew what was about to occur, the jury was entitled to conclude from these facts that Mifflin was aware that he was subjecting Pavlick to a substantial risk of serious harm. We have held similar facts sufficient to support liability in previous cases. See Watts v. Laurent, 774 F.2d 168, 173 (7th Cir. 1985) (evidence sufficient to hold three guards liable for attack on inmate because guards could have overheard threats made against inmate), cert. denied, 475 U.S. 1085 (1986); see also Richardson v. Penfold, 839 F.2d 392, 394-96 (7th Cir. 1988) (reversing grant of summary judgment in favor of guard: guard could be liable for the rape of an inmate (Richardson) because he allowed the rapist (Birch) to enter Richardson's cell despite Richardson's plea not to be left alone with Birch). /6

As a final note, Mifflin contends that his knowledge of the danger to Pavlick may not be proven by the fact that rumors were circulating concerning the planned hit on Hopkins. At least one court has noted that the fact that rumors are circulating in a large office might not be sufficient to demonstrate that an individual official has knowledge of a risk. See Williams v. Borough of West Chester, Pennsylvania, 891 F.2d 458, 466 (3d Cir. 1989) (affirming grant of summary judgment: evidence insufficient to find officers deliberately indifferent for failing to protect prisoner who committed suicide even though rumors of prisoner's suicidal tendencies were circulating). We need not decide, however, the significance of the rumors of the hit, because Pavlick's case does not ultimately rest on rumors. Unlike Williams, Watts, and Richardson, this case is not merely one of a prison official's alleged failure to protect an inmate. In failure to protect cases, the debate often exclusively concerns what the prison official knew and when he knew it because it is important to insure that guards are not held liable for failing to prevent the unforeseeable acts of third parties. In such cases, a prisoner's lawsuit may turn on whether a guard heard certain rumors and thus knew that the inmate was in danger. Here, however, the focus is on what Mifflin did rather than on what he failed to do: he was observed conversing with the attackers and opening Pavlick's cell door immediately prior to the assault. As we have noted, these facts potentially show more than simply knowledge of or acquiescence to the attack; they could lead a reasonable jury to conclude that Mifflin actually participated in the assault against Pavlick. Thus, the rumors are not necessary to demonstrate that Mifflin possessed the requisite mental state; the jury was entitled to draw the inference from his actions alone. /7

In conclusion, viewing the evidence in the light most favorable to Pavlick, a reasonable jury could have found that Mifflin acted with deliberate indifference. Accordingly, the judgment of the district court is


The Blueprint: From Gangster Disciple to Growth and Development

The Blueprint: From Gangster Disciple to Growth and Development

Book information

Title: The Blueprint: From Gangster Disciple to Growth and Development
Author: Rod Emery
Publisher: Morris Publishing, 1996
ISBN: 1575021773, 9781575021775
Format: Paperback, 118 pages

See also: Blueprint of the New Concept - Larry Hoover

The Blueprint: From Gangster Disciple to Growth and Development - Rod Emery
Chapter One: "The Gangster Disciples"
pp 10-15

The Black Gangster Disciple Nation was born out of two organizations. In the beginning, there were two separate organizations: The Disciple Nation, whose President was David Barksdale, and the Gangster Nation, whose President was Larry Hoover. There were many branches of both organizations.

David Barksdale

Some of the Disciple Nation under David Barksdale’s leadership were: Devit’s Disciples, Falcon Disciples, Royal Disciples, Renegade Disciples, Executioner Disciples, Boss Pimp disciples, East Side Disciples, Sircon Disciples, Motown Disciples, Dutchtown Disciples, Gonzato Disciples, Six-Tray Disciples, Maniac Disciples and four-Tray Disciples. Also during this period of time, David Barksdale controlled the Del Vikings, the Black Souls, and the West Side Cobras.

Larry Hoover

Some of the branches of the Gangster Nation under Larry Hoover’s leadership were: The Supreme Gangsters (the first branch was considered to be the father of the gangster nation), Imperial Gangsters, African Sniper Gangsters, Raven Gangsters, High Supreme Gangsters, Russian Gangsters, Maniac Gangsters, Mafia Gangsters , 75th Street Syndicate Gangsters, Outlaw Gangsters, 95th Street Supreme Gangsters, the Dells Gangsters, West Side Suprem Gangsters, Racketeer Gangsters, East side Syndicate Gangsters, Gent town Gangsters, and the Black Pimp Gangsters of the West Side.

Everybody in the City of Chicago who as a Disciple or a Gangster was under the leadership of David Barksdale or Larry Hoover, respectively. Up until that point in our history, no one in an organization had ever been referred to as a “King.”

At the time, the Vice Lords, the Blackstone Rangers (Stones) and the Disciples were the three major gangs (street organizations) in the City of Chicago. In terms of membership numbers and organizational structure, the Vice Lords were the first major gang in the Lawndale area. Some of the businesses that they opened were a Restaurant, clothing boutiques, Tastee Freeze, pool room, Teen Town Dance Studio and an art studio. In addition they offered many programs for the benefit of the community.The Vice Lords reached their peak between the years 1957 and 1967. They were the father of the “Super Gangs: and had their origin on the west side of Chicago. They were the forerunners of the concept of changing street gangs into organizations.

In the years 1963 and 1964, two southside street gangs started to take a form that would eventually evolve into two of the most powerful street organizations in Chicago. They were the Blackstone Rangers and the Black Disciples. During the reign of these two organizations, the Blackstone Rangers were believed to be the most organized because they held national recognition, support from prominent business men, entertainers, and politicians. They entered into business ventures with the late Sammy Davis Jr. and had the support of W. Clement Stone, a self-made millionaire and business entrepreneur. However, one of the most impressive displays of political power and community importance of a street organization came when Jeff Fort, leader of the Blackstone Rangers, was invited to the late Richard Nixon’s inauguration.

The Blackstone Rangers were originally founded by Eugene Hairston and Jeff Fort. Under Jeff Fort’s leadership they prospered and changed their organization’s name to “the Black P. Stone Nation” and eventually they became known as “the El Rukns.”

David Barksdale, the leader of the Black Disciple Nation, had an organization that was comparable to the Blackstone Rangers. Although he did not receive the same amount of national recognition, he was well known through the City of Chicago and was respected by his friends and feared by his foes. At the time, David Barksdale was the most revered street gang organizer in Chicago.

Cabrini-Green housing was Gangster Disciple headquarters

On the other hand, amongst these two major street organizations on the southside of Chicago were the Gangster: A young street organization striving for a place of high recognition and respect in the City of Chicago. The Blackstone Rangers and the Black Disciple Nation were vying to bring the Gangsters in as part of their respective organizations. Jeff Fort, as leader of the Black P. Stone nation, brought Larry Hoover an offer to incorporate the Gangsters as part of the Black P. Stone Nation’s structure as Gangster Stones and offered Hoover the less favorable position as an ambassador within the Black P. Stone Nation. In Hoover’s mind, such a merger would swallow up the Gangster identity. Therefore Hoover declined.

When Jeff Fort offered Hoover the opportunity to incorporate, he was unaware of just how strong the Gangsters were rapidly becoming. With branches of Gangsters throughout Chicago, Hoover’s empire had reached the Morgan Park area on the southwest side, across 95th Street and well into the far-south edges of the City. The Gangsters swelled from Ashland and Halsted on the west to Cottage Grove on the east. Pockets of Gangsters were scattered throughout every district on the southside of Chicago and membership was rapidly growing on the Westside. Larry Hoover had put together the Black Gangster Disciple Nation, which would vie for power and battle the Stones and Disciples for years to come.

In January 1969, David Barksdale, leader of eh Disciple Nation, developed a broader vision about the mission and purpose of street organizations (commonly referred to as “street gangs”). In essence, David was tired of the senseless violence and mayhem that was destroying the black community because of street gangs’ warfare. He struggled with the idea of how to bring an end to the constant gang warfare that existed between the Disciples and the Gangsters. He realized that such a state of existence would only bring about self-destruction in the lives of ghetto youth. Therefore, he made an offer that Hoover could not refuse. David proposed merging the two organizations with Hoover sharing equal power. From that merger, THE BLACK GANGSTER DISCIPLE NATION was born. This began the era of “Kings.”

Never before in the history of Chicago had gang leaders been known as “Kings.” Looking back, it was an ambiguous situation, but it was a necessary compromise to stop the gang wars and save the lives of members on both sides. David Barksdale was wise enough to know that by bringing Hoover an offer to share the throne of gang leadership as two Kings with equal power, Hoover would accept and thereby end the bloodshed between the two organizations. David was willing to give up so much because he had a broader vision and a creatively positive direction for the new organizations. Such were the circumstances surrounding the birth of “THE BLACK GANGSTER DISCIPLE NATION.”

The merger was uplifting for both organizations. It allowed many negative energies to turn into positive energies and together the two unified organizations became active in community affairs. They opened and operated a gas station, two restaurants, community clean-up programs and enforced school truancy policies. The Englewood Business men’s Association worked hand in hand with our organization for the betterment of the community. The Black Gangster Disciples were given a security contract for Wilson Junior College, located on 70th and Stewart Streets in the Englewood district. Our members were given jobs in the 63rd Street shopping concourse as security guards, salespersons and they also worked in the neighborhood bank. One of our members still holds the same job he acquired during this period.

The Business Men’s Association assisted us in obtaining centers for the organization. The first to open was on 63rd and Normal Streets and 61st and Halstad Streets, out of which David Barksdale operated a free breakfast program for the community. Another center was located at 6th and Halsted Streets, out of which Larry Hoover operated a free lunch program to feed the needy children in the community.

Our trouble as an organization began when we started dealing in big city politics. Before that, we were largely overlooked. We became active in community issues and got involved with the Reverend Jesse Jackson and Operation Breadbasket. We formed the LSD Coalition, which as an acronym for Lords, Stones and Disciples. We marched and picketed the “Red Rooster Grocery Store” which was a large food chain that contribute primarily to the black community. We were successful in shutting down the Red Rooster chain and stopped the selling of bad meat to the black community.

We marched with the Reverend Jesse Jackson to force the hiring of Black Contractors to help build Circle Campus; we made up 80% of the participants in that march. We marched nonviolently with Dr. Martin Luther King in Marquette Park during the peak of the Civil Rights Movement. We were fast becoming known as a potentially powerful grassroots organization that would carry the fight against racism, segregation, inequality and unemployment right up to the City Hall steps, as well as throughout the voting booths of the City of Chicago. In essence, we became a threat to the status quo of inner-city politics and the powers that be.

Mysteriously, all major street organizations had drugs made readily available to them for mass distribution throughout the black community. Of course, drugs had been in the black community all the time, but with very limited access. Then all of a sudden, as we matured into a power to be reckoned with, our membership began to receive highly lucrative offers (from here to fore unknown sources), to package and distribute drugs for a living. After becoming so positively involved in the social and political aspects of our communities, drugs were introduced to shut us up politically and appease us financially. However, drugs also ended the positive direction of our organization’s movement. In that sense, the powers that be could not have (been) happier. As an organization, we had fallen into their trap and they closed the door and swallowed the key.

Shortly before the flood of drugs into the black community, there was a spirit of camaraderie, a sense of belonging which fostered love (our 1st principle), honesty and a feeling of being a part of something great, our organization. Many problems were solved in our neighborhoods because everyone looked upon each other as part of the same family. Drug dealers and users were initially frowned upon. Nevertheless, with the huge and lucrative influx of drugs, suddenly drug dealers were success stories; the role models for instant riches; representatives of “the good life.”

Our organization lost many of its members to the drug game either directly or indirectly. The positive potential that these lost members had in unimaginable and immeasurable. Through drug usage, loyalties shifted or became non-existent. Those who were not consumers splintered off ot control turf or neighborhood strips. Our losses continued to swell. Many of our members became known as the “walking dead” (dopefiends) and were constantly in and out of jail and prisons throughout the State of Illinois, as well as the Country of America. As far as the positive growth and development of the members of our organization is concerned, the users, sellers, and all associated with the drug trap paid a price that has yet to be tallied.

While jobs, social and educational programs are constantly being slashed out of the government budget, drugs have become an industry in the black community as well as in poor communities nationwide. Some of us who were caught in the trap have become aware of the fact that a great change is needed in our lifestyles. Larry Hoover is one of us who has become aware and his message is that we need to focus our energies toward eradicating the predicament that we find ourselves in.

The “BLUEPRINT” will not only enrich our lives, but it is a progressive step for many of us in the return to a positive direction. - Rod Emery

Blueprint of the New Concept - Larry Hoover

Blueprint of the New Concept
aka: Gangster Disciple book of knowledge
aka: Folk Nation book of knowledge
aka: Blueprint for Growth and Development

Larry Hoover, the leader of the Gangster Disciples Nation based in Chicago, closely monitored the evolution of the American mafia from its humble “Black Hand” origins at the turn of the century, through its successful infiltration of legitimate business. Al Capone was Larry Hoover's hero. Jeff Fort, leader of the Blackstone Rangers during the formative years of the 1960s, built the foundation from which Hoover added organizational refinements.

In 1983, Hoover drafted a manifesto titled the “Blueprint of the New Concept,” which outlined the six principles of “Growth and Development.” The principles are also called the universal laws of existence and/or the six points of "Growth & Development." From clockwise, beginning at the eleven o'clock position on the star, the points correlate with the six "King David" principles: Love, Life, Loyalty, Knowledge, Wisdom, and Understanding. A quasi-executive board which Hoover called the “Brothers Of the StruggleB.O.S., or BOSS for "Brothers Of the Strong Struggle," was founded at Stateville Penitentiary in 1983 for the purpose of establishing a management structure.

Gangster Disciples have a nationwide membership that exceeds 100,000.

In Illinois alone, 8,000 GD's are serving time in state prison. Another 30,000 GD's are roaming the streets of Chicago.

See also: The Blueprint: From Gangster Disciple to Growth and Development - Rod Emery


Should outlaw biker gangs be outlawed?
Yes No I plead the Fifth

More polls coming soon.

Hammerskin Nation

The Hammerskin Nation is the most violent and best organized neo-Nazi Skinhead group in the World. As a former member of WHS and HSN, I would like to give you some background information on this group that's starting its third decade of HATE.

This Nation of HATE started in 1987 as a group of young skinheads got together and decided to form a group; they just needed a name. Many ideas were tossed around; finally Confederate Hammer Skins was the chosen name. After all they were from the south, so they used the Confederate Battle Flag with the marching Hammers form Pink Floyd’s movie The WALL. Apparently, it was a wise decision on their part. Little did anyone know it would flourish into what is today the largest skinhead group on the globe. With that, the very first Hammerskin chapter was born. Sean and Liz Tarrant, Jon Jordan, Michael Lawrence, Christopher Greer and Daniel Wood became the founding members. CHS (as they were known) intended to set the standard amongst skinheads in the U.S. Hammerskins wanted to show people that there were the best and that they would promote the 14 words. “We must secure the existence of our race and a future for white children.”

The Wall - Pink Floyd - Run Like Hell

In early 1988 Hammerskins attend marches in Pulaski, Tennessee, and the Sedition Trials in Ft. Smith, Arkansas. By summer of 1988, skinheads in Oklahoma City and Tulsa, Oklahoma; Waco, Texas; and Memphis, Tennessee, became part of the CHS phenomena. Christopher Jones, Daniel “RIP” Roush and Forrest Hyde fast became leader in CHS in Oklahoma. Almost simultaneously Hammerskins chapter began to spurt up everywhere. Holland moved north to Detroit and Helped to form Northern Hammerskin or NHS (as they were known). CHS and NHS were flourishing . Around the same time of the first Aryan Fest was in the works, in Oklahoma. Aryan Fests were always used as a way to bring skinheads together. The Hammerskin used the Aryan Fest to expand, making connection with skinhead from all over the US. After Aryan Fest `88 the Springfield, Missouri, chapter of CHS was founded. The Hammerskin presence was becoming a formidable one. Another contact was made in late 1988. This time it would take Hammerskins to the east coast and Portland, Maine. This chapter would be the beginning of what is now EHS.Towards the latter months of 1988 a Hammerskin chapter sprung up in Hollister, in Northern California. They used the name CHS as well, because there was no official WHS yet. This chapter came about from contacts made with WAR skins when Holland from NHS met them on the set of the Oprah Winfrey talk show, in Chicago, in 1987. By the end of 1989 Hammerskins were BI-coastal.

Aryan Fest 1989 was another chance to forge strong bonds with skinheads from around the US and World wide. “I can’t help but feel that we are our worst enemies at times“as Liz Tarrent would later say, by the fall of 1989 Hammerskins were experiencing the problems of rumors, gossip, back stabbing, and in fighting was the typical norm, no Hammer at this time was immune from it destroying power. “Much of our growth, I believe, was due to the heavy publicity in the beginning“, Liz would comment. The friendship with Tom Metzger, at the time, led to a lot of exposure in the WAR (White Aryan Resistance) newspaper and Aryan Fest videos; these along with other zines such as, Blood and Honor, Pure Impact, Final War, and numerous lesser ones, were promoting Hammerskin and made them a household name in the Skinhead movement. Calls from TV shows such as, 60 Minutes, 20/20, amongst others were badgering for interviews. The exposure has a two edged sword, while the media exposure help swell the numbers of Hammerskins it also help to make them a target for law enforcement agencies at the same time. At that point, people wanted to either became a Hammerskin or kill one. They had all the attention they ask for and the Hammerskin had to learn their lesson the hard way.

In the fall of 1989, Indictments were handed down, in which 5 member of the Dallas CHS were convicted on “conspiracy to violate the civil rights of blacks and Jews”. The sentences ranged from 4 1/2 - 9 1/2 years. Similar charges would follow with Christopher Jones, Daniel “RIP” Roush and Forrest Hyde, being convicted. Hammerskins were learning the hard way At some point during late `89, or early 1990, an Eastern Hammerskin chapter was founded and out west, a group of skinheads in Phoenix, Arizona, set themselves up as AHS, Arizona Hammerskins founded by Jimmy "Soda Pop" Miller. Jimmy was convicted of firebombed a residence he mistakenly thought was occupied by rival skinheads and defaced a synagogue. He was sentenced to five years for these crimes, but only served two years in prison. At the same time in Southern California, Western Hammer Skins, were founded . At the for front of the chapters was Ashley Brown, Dave Van VanVooris and Paul Smith, and Geremy Reinnman. The ground work had been laid, and in the first 2 and half years, and Hammerskins were now a fully functioning National Organization.

The next event of major importance was the formation of “Hammerskin Nation“in late 1990 and early 1991. The concept was designed to do away with the regional titles at first: CHS, NHS, EHS, and WHS along with the regional patches were to done away with, and were to unite under one common Hammerskin Nation banner. Hammerskins had divided themselves and it was time to remove all the walls of division., If Hammerskins were to represent one Nation and one Volk, then it was time to, became a Hammerskin Nation! Yet, the regions would win out in the end and keep their regional patches in addition to having to wear the new Hammerskin Nation patch. Hammerskin Nation became much more technologically savvy, starting or helped to promote many skinhead shows throughout the world, and produced a few publications. Many Hammerskin band were the driving force behind the birth of the racist record label Resistance Records.

One of the most important moments in the expansion of HSN history was the inception of Hammerskins Nation in Europe, under the watchful eye of Ed of NHS. Hammerskin Nation spread internationally into Switzerland, Northern Ireland, Germany, France, the Czech Republic, England, Italy, Spain and the Netherlands. By 1993 Hammerskins would claim Australia, Canada. Canadian skinheads were welcomed under the NHS banner. Several other Canadian cities such as Montreal, Winnipeg, Ottawa and Surrey, British Columbia. Would become what is known today as VHS, Vinland Hammer Skins. In 1999 a National Conference Meeting for HSN was held,followed by a concert, billed as Hammerfest. Which was a big success for HSN, in the fact that it helped to strengthen the brotherhood in the now world wide racist group. At the meeting regional boundaries were redrawn to make way for a two new regions, and MHS, Midland Hammerskins was Founded and a short time late NWHS, Northwest Hammerskin were founded.

From the founding of CHS to the birth of Hammerskin Nation member of this skinhead gang have been charged with murder, attempted murder, conspiracy to commit murder, violation of civil right and hate crimes. As Hammerskin Nation enters its 20th year, it seams they will remain the most dangerous skinhead gang in the US. -TJ Leyden

HSN number codes:

= Crossed Hammers

386 = Crossed Hammers Forever

55/HFFH = Hammerskins Forever - Forever Hammerskins
H/8 F/6 8+6=14 Now if you break down 14 1+4=5

Hammerskin chapters

Neo-Nazi Skinheads


Despite widespread media coverage and consistent monitoring by civil rights organizations, racist skinhead gangs in the United States remain understudied by social scientists. While American skinheads are a relatively small portion of the overall gang picture, they have maintained a continuous presence in the United States for the last twenty-five years and can be found in every region of the country. Although American skinheads have been neglected in the academic literature, the original British skinheads received considerable scholarly attention. Using a neo-Marxist inspired conception of youth subculture, these studies tended to focus exclusively upon style, which they explained as an attempt to resolve a marginal working-class status in a class·based society. One of the consistent controversies surrounding the study of skinheads has been whether to define them as stylistic subcultures (as British scholars did), gangs, hate groups, or even terrorists. In the United States skinheads have typically been excluded from gang studies on the grounds that they are better understood as “hate groups” and/or "terrorists” sharing little in common with traditional street gangs. In contrast to street gangs, racist skinheads have been portrayed as closely organized around an ideological system of “Aryan supremacy" and as lacking traditional gang territorial claims. Moreover, it is commonly believed that skinheads differ from traditional gangs in that they do not spend significant amounts of time “hanging out" on the streets; instead, they are said to be “inside . . .working on their materials; or if outside, they’re looking for a target, not just lounging around . . . skinheads are focused, always planning. . . . Skins prefer narrower ranges of trouble.”

Yet a careful review of the literature suggests the inadequacy of conceptualizations of racist skinheads as completely distinct from traditional youth street gangs. Stephen Baron‘s (I997) study of Canadian racist skinheads and Erik Anderson‘s (1987) study of San Francisco skinheads, for example, found these youth to be neither highly organized nor politicized. Skinhead youth lived on the streets or in other transient circumstances (e.g., crashpads) and often used violent and other criminal means for survival and the settlement of disputes with other urban and suburban youth cliques. This chapter examines the early development of U.S. racist skinhead gangs, their organizational characteristics including the relationship between skinheads and white supremacist groups, and current trends within the skinhead scene.

The Development of American Skinheads

Although the skinhead style spread to America through a process of international cultural diffusion, American skinhead gangs formed in response to changes in local punk rock scenes as well as larger changes in the wider social structure. ln the late 1970s, local punk rock scenes starting getting "hardcore,” which signaled a more violent and suburban trend in punk rock. Hardcore referred to a faster style of music and a more hostile attitude, which was expressed through random violence directed at other punks during music shows. For younger suburban kids, hardcore aggressiveness provided an important security device from those antagonistic toward punk style. During this time, the skinhead style evolved from hardcore and, similar to hardcore, became a popular alternative to kids attracted to an ultra-aggressive style. In the early 1980s, local youth cliques across urban and suburban areas in the United States began forming skinhead gangs. The first skinhead gangs bonded around identity markers and shared interests (e.g., shaved heads, clothing styles, musical preferences, slang, tattoos, etc.). Skinheads were building a collective identity with organizational names, initiation rites, semi·hierarchical social roles, and nonspecialized, “garden-variety” delinquency (e.g., vandalism, under-age drinking, petty theft, and maybe most important, fighting). Yet skinhead identity was also loose, unstructured, and tied to social gatherings that were relatively unregulated, allowing for the innovation needed to create oppositional identities. Most skinheads describe their early participation as involving "street socialization" within urban and suburban locales such as malls, parks, music shows, etc. Street socialization is a street·based process providing peer guidance, creating an alternate set of values and norms among youth who lack parental supervision and positive school experiences. Contrary to what some observers contend, skinhead gangs have not been devoid of local neighborhood-based territoriality which can be seen in their choice of gang names (e.g., South Bay Skins, San Francisco Skins, etc.) and claiming specific locations, such as parks or music clubs by using graffiti “tags" and other more physically aggressive means.

In addition to changes in local punk scenes, skinhead gangs were also forming in response to changes involving the larger socio·political environment. Since the mid-1960s, increasing "non-white" immigration had been significantly altering U.S. demographics. Initially the skinhead response to these changes bore great resemblance to the kinds of conflict that ethnic/racial migration spurred in New York and other large urban centers only a few decades earlier. Race was only implicitly important, in much the way that it was to the punks. The majority of (but not all) punks and skinheads were white youth, and although pockets of explicitly racist sentiments existed among punks and the early skinheads, racist political activism was not a primary emphasis before the late 1980s.

History of Skinheads in the UK

A significant component of skinhead culture is their appearance. Traditionally skinhead style included closely cropped hair or shaved head, work pants or denim jeans, Doc Marten steel·toed work boots, suspenders, and tattoos. As one observer pointed out, skinheads dressed like a “caricature of the model worker." Skinhead culture began in Great Britain and developed in two waves through the 1960s and 1970s. The first skinheads emerged in Great Britain in the late 1960s in response to deteriorating traditional working-class communities stemming from a stagnating economy, competition with immigrants for scarce jobs, and withering neighborhood traditions. While they did not explicitly associate themselves with Nazism, they were ardently nationalist in political orientation and fervently opposed to foreign immigration, which was reflected by their affinity for violently attacking Pakistani immigrants aka "Paki-bashing.” The first skinheads "were aware that they attended the worst schools, lived in the poorest districts, and had the worst jobs with the smallest wages. They perceived hippies in the same way as they viewed students, as idle layabouts living off the state.”

While the first skinheads defined themselves along themes of nationalism, ultra-masculinity, and working-class issues (e.g., lack of economic opportunity), they expressed political sentiments primarily through stylistic imagery, hence, they were not typically involved in traditional, organized political activities (e.g., unions, political parties, marches, etc.), This lack of politicization began to change as a second wave of English skinheads emerged in the late 1970s and tentatively became associated with the National Front (NF) and the British National Party (BNP), extreme right-wing political parties, who saw the utility of drawing disaffected white youth into their ranks. The second wave of skinheads spread beyond Britain and emerged in several other European countries as well as North America.

The Organizational Characteristics of Skinhead Gangs

Most skinheads become involved between the ages of twelve and nineteen, are predominantly male (60-70 percent), and tend to coalesce around a unique subculture that is autonomous and distinct from adult hate groups such as the Klan. Because skinheads have maintained a presence in the United States since the late 1970s, there are now skinheads in their early forties, however, very little is known about these “O.G.” skinheads or more generally about how aging affects a skinhead’s identity or life course trajectory. Many skinhead gangs are short·lived and have overlapping membership (e.g., sometimes a smaller skinhead clique will be completely compromised of members from other larger skinhead gangs). Most skinhead gangs are either organized at the state-level (e.g., West Virginia Skinheads), county and/or city-level (e.g., Orange County Skins, las Vegas Skins), or even neighborhood and/or school-based (e.g., Milwaukee Eastside Bullies). One of the few exceptions is the Hammerskin Nation (HSN) which is an international skinhead organization that was originally formed in Dallas, Texas, in 1988. Currently the HSN has five regional chapters in the United States (e.g., Northern Hammers, Midland Hammers, etc.) and outside the United States an additional ten countries also have official HSN chapters.

Through much of the 1980s the skinhead scene was an umbrella without clearly demarcated boundaries, allowing fluid forms of participation; yet there emerged within the scene subgroups with clearer boundaries of membership (skinheads often referred to these as “crews"). Over the years as some skinhead gangs became closely aligned with white supremacist groups the distinction between racist and anti-racist skinheads has become relatively clear-cut; however, this was not the case initially, as factions along lines of racial ideology were originally much blurrier Even today some ambiguity continues to persist as skinheads change allegiances between racist and anti·racist. In conclusion, the most important lessons of skinhead gangs involve three points: (1) racist skinhead gangs do not fit neatly in any one particular category—they are diverse and change frequently; (2.) despite rapid turnover and group splintering, the U.S. skinhead scene has been able to persist; and (3) although some skinhead gangs have become a branch of the contemporary white supremacist movement, many other skinhead gangs remain oppositional in localized terms without a clear political program for broad social change. -Encyclopedia of Gangs 2007

Ian Stuart Donaldson

To a considerable degree, the emergence of neo-Nazi Skinheads can be attributed to British singer Ian Stuart Donaldson (often referred to as Ian Stuart), who began as a punk rocker but by the 1980s had transformed himself and his band, Skrewdriver, into explicit promoters of racism and white supremacy. Racist "Oi!" music was a genre of punk music that was popular among early skinheads. By the early 1980s, white power bands in Europe and the U.S. played racist Oi!, racist hardcore punk (often called hatecore), and racist metal music.

During the ensuing decade, hate music (often called "WP music," or "white power music," and "R.A.C.," or "Rock Against Communism") increased its hold among young racists around the world. When Ian Stuart Donaldson died in an auto accident in 1993, he became a white supremacist icon. He did not live to see the transformation of his legacy, however. Within a few years of his death, the emergence of the World Wide Web radically altered the world of hate music, making it dramatically more accessible, more global, more visible, and more lucrative.


* Racist Oi!/RAC: The oldest genre of hate music is derived from Oi!, an offshoot of punk music that originated in the 1970s and became heavily associated with the emerging skinhead subculture. In the wake of Skrewdriver, some racist Oi! bands emerged, sometimes calling their music RAC (Rock Against Communism).

* Hatecore: Hatecore is essentially a racist version of hardcore punk, a musical subgenre that emerged in the U.S. in the early 1980s. Some hardcore punk musicians later merged it with heavy metal music to create thrash or speed metal; there are racist versions of this as well.

Hate Rock music is now a major recruitment tool and source of funding for hate groups. Many hate group members, especially neo-Nazi skinheads, have been drawn to white supremacy by listening to hate rock on the Internet, on CDs, and at concerts, often promoted and coordinated online, where crowds violently slamdance to the music of bands such as Angry Aryans, Blue Eyed Devils, and H8Machine.

Skinheads in a "moshpit"


Criminal Skinheads

Criminally motivated skinhead groups spend most of their time engaged in for-profit criminal activities, such as drug sales and burglaries. Incidental to their criminal activity, they commit hate crimes. Criminally motivated skinheads are typically classified by law enforcement agencies as criminals first, and haters second. The San Fernando Valley Peckerwoods (SVP) in California was a criminally motivated skinhead group. SVP members primarily sold meth-amphetamines and committed residential burglaries. Periodically, SVP members attacked minorities with weapons and, on one occasion, placed packages resembling bombs near an apartment complex where black people lived. Members intended for the fake bombs to frighten current residents to relocate and to discourage other black families from moving into the complex.

Criminal Skinhead Gangs: Public Enemy Number One (PENI), Peckerwoods

Hate Code

A=1 B=2 C=3 D=4 E=5 F=6 G=7 H=8 I=9

8/H= Hate

88/HH= Heil Hitler

18/AH= Adolf Hitler

58/EH= Extreme Hatred

83/HK= Haken Kreuz: German for Swastika

83/HC= Heil Christ: Used by racist Christian groups

5 Words= I have nothing to say

16/AF= American Front

816= Heil American Front

28= Blood and Honour

828/HBH= Heil Blood and Honour

228/BBH= Brotherhood Blood and Honour

211/BAA= Brotherhood of Aryan Alliance

38= Crossed Hammers

386= Crossed Hammers Forever

311 or 3/11= Ku Klux Klan

23= White or Wood (short for Peckerwood)

14 Words= We must secure the existence of our people and a future for White children.

14 Words for Women= Because the beauty of the White Aryan women must not perish from the Earth.

55/HF-FH= Hammerskins Forever-Forever Hammerskin
H/8 F/6 8+6=14 Now if you break down 14 1+4=5


American Front
American Thule Society (ATS)
Arizona Hammerskins
Arizona Northern American Skinheads/SS Guardians (ANAS/SSG)
Aryan Fourth Reich Skins
Aryan Renaissance Society/Aryan Fourth Reich Skins
Atlantic City Skinheads/AC Skins
Bergen County Hooligans (BCH)
Blood and Honour
Blood and Honour Kentucky
Blood and Honour/Combat 18
Canyon State Skinheads
Central New York White Pride
Combat 18
Confederate Hammerskins (CHS)
Confederation of Racialist Working Class Skinheads (CRW Skinheads)
C.O.O.R.S. (Comrades of Our Race's Struggle)
- Family Skins/Coors Family Skinheads (CFS)
Deadline Skinheads/Deadline Family Skins
Deaths Head Hooligans (DHH)
East Coast Aryan Brotherhood
East Coast Aryan Brotherhood (ECAB)
East Coast Hate Crew (ECHC)
Eastern Hammerskins (EHS)
Eastern Washington Skinheads
Family Affiliated Irish Mafia (FAIM)
Final Stand Records
Fond du Lac Skins
Free Your Mind Productions
Goetterdaemmerung National Socialist Korps
Golden State Skinheads
Hammerskin Nation
Hated Skins
Hoosier State Skinheads (HSS)
Insane Peckerwood Society
Insane White Boys
Iron Eagle Skinheads
Keystone United (formerly Keystone State Skinheads KSS)
Lake County Skinheads
Lancaster Skins
Las Vegas Skinheads
Maryland Skinheads
Micetrap White Power Music
Midland Hammerskins
Midland Hammerskins/Midland Skins
Milwaukee East Side Bullies
Montana Front Working Class Skinheads
National Socialist Skinhead Front (NSSF)
National Socialist White People`s Party
Nazi Low Riders (NLR)
New Jersey State Prison Skins
New Order Skins
Northern California Aryan Volk (NCAV)
Northern Hammerskins
Northside Wrecking Crew
Northwest Hammerskins (NWHS
Norwalk Skins
Ohio State Skinheads
Old Glory Skins
Orange County Skins
Outlaw Hammerskins (OHS)
Panzerfaust Records
Peckerwood Syndicate
PENI Skins (Public Enemy Number 1 Skins)
Racine County Skins
Retaliator Skinheads
River City Skins
Roswell Aryan Front
Salt City Skins
San Fernando Valley Skins
Scioto Valley Skinheads
Scioto Valley Skinheads/Scioto Skins
Show-Me State Skinheads/St. Louis Crew
Silent Aryan Warriors (SAW)
Skinhead Dogs
Small Town Peckerwoods
So Cal Assassins (SCA Peckerwoods)
Society Skin Nation
Soldiers of Aryan Culture (SAC)
South Florida Aryan Alliance (SFAA)
Southeastern Pennsylvania White Pride
Southern California Skinheads
TCB (Taking Care of Business) Hate Crew
The Pride
Those Opposed
Tualatin Valley Skins
United Skinheads of Atlanta
UOAS (Universal Order of Aryan Skinheads)
Upfront Records/Intimidation One
Vinland Winds Records
West Virginia Skinheads
Western Hammerskins
White Heat Productions
White Plague Skinheads (WPS)
White Plague Skinheads (WPS) Byrd Division
White Plague Skins (WPS)
White Power Liberation Front (WPLF)
White Wolves

See also: Hammerkins, Neo-Nazis

Tag Cloud
[keywords: white gangster disciples, 211 crew, hells angels prison, gangland pagans, aryan alliance, saxon knight, insane gangster disciples, gipsy jokers, gypsy joker motorcycle club, gypsy jokers, white prison gangs, saxon knights, insane gangster disciple, pagan motorcycle club, deadman inc, pagans mc, tom silverstein, insane gangsta disciples, pagans motorcycle club, pagan mc club, the pagans mc, dead man inc prison gang, pagans mc chapters, dead man inc, pagans motorcycle clubs, white prison gangs, white gangster disciples, aryan brotherhood tattoos, aryan brotherhood gang, aryan brotherhood texas, michael thompson aryan brotherhood, aryan brotherhood trial, aryan brotherhood leaders, aryan brotherhood history, aryan brotherhood symbols, aryan brotherhood members, white gangs in america, chicago white gangs, white gangs in california, white gangs in los angeles, list of white gangs, white gangs in prison, white gangs in la, orange county white gangs, white gangs in texas, vago motorcycle club, black pistons, gypsy joker mc, brother speed motorcycle club, pagan motorcycle gang, pagan biker gang, pagans biker gang, gypsy jokers mc, gypsy jokers motorcycle club, vagos motorcycle club, white gangs in prison, nazi low riders prison gang, vagos motorcycle clubs, gangster disciples stacking, pagans mc patch, vagos motorcycle gang, white aryan resistance, hells angels biker gang, kkk gangs, insane gangster disciple nation, insane gangsta disciple, outlaw biker gangs, pagan mc, hells angels patches, black piston mc, gangland devils fire, dead man inc prison gang, dead man incorporated, white racist gangs, dead man incorporated gang, pagans motorcycle gang, the breed motorcycle club, breed motorcycle club, vagos mc club, diablos mc, white gangs in america, white prison gangs, aryan circle, thomas silverstein, vago s, 1 percent motorcycle clubs, vagos mc, dead man incorporated gang, the breed motorcycle club, gangster disciples literature, gangster disciple literature, arian circle, gipsy joker, breed motorcycle club, pagans motorcycle, dead men inc, hells angels motorcycle club, pagans mc club, vago mc, vagos motorcycle club website, thomas silverstein prison, prison skinhead, gypsy joker, prison skinheads, gangland mc, pagan mc, brothers speed mc, dead men incorporated, brother speed mc, the outlaws mc, hells angels bikie gang, one percenter motorcycle clubs, the breed motorcycle gang, white gangs in prison, one percent motorcycle clubs, gangster disciple stacking, jokers mc, breed motorcycle, vagos biker gang, almighty gaylords, prison gang tattoo, gang tattoo identification, gang tattoo meanings, gang tattoo designs, gang tattoo symbols, gang tattoo database, gang tattoo art]